## PONTOS DE PIVOT

Os pontos de pivô foram criados entre os traders da bolsa de mercadorias e futuros de Chicago, por volta da década de 1950. Sem avançados recursos em mãos, os operadores desenvolveram uma fórmula para antecipar os suportes e resistências dos ativos no intraday.

Observando o comportamento diário dos preços, os traders perceberam que os ativos tendem, em média, a oscilar em torno de um número específico, intitulado por eles como Ponto Pivô (PP), este constituído pela seguinte média:

Observando o comportamento diário dos preços, os traders perceberam que os ativos tendem, em média, a oscilar em torno de um número específico, intitulado por eles como Ponto Pivô (PP), este constituído pela seguinte média:

Com essa fórmula, os traders de Chicago encontravam o ponto de pivô do dia seguinte. A partir daí, calcula-se os suportes e resistências com as seguintes fórmulas:

- S1 = (2*PP) – H
- R1 = (2*PP) – L
- S2 = PP – (R1 – S1)
- R2 = PP + (R1 – S1)
- S3 = PP – (R2 – S2)
- R3 = PP + (R2 – S2)
- Com as referências em mãos, compravam e vendiam baseados nos patamares calculados, técnica muito utilizada hoje em dia. Em conjunto com as médias móveis e números de Fibonacci, os pontos de pivô potencializam os suportes e resistências do ativo analisado.

O ponto de pivô tem-se revelado extremamente útil no mercado Forex. Na verdade, os suportes e as resistências geradas por pontos de pivô tendem a funcionar melhor no Forex (especialmente com os pares mais líquidos), porque a grande dimensão do mercado protege contra a manipulação do mesmo. Em essência, o mercado Forex adere aos princípios técnicos, como suporte e resistência, melhor do que mercados menos líquidos. O gráfico abaixo mostra um indicador de pontos de pivô no Metatrader 4. Clique nos links abaixo para baixar os indicadores de pontos de pivô.

## Pivot Points

A pivot point is a price level of significance in technical analysis of a financial market that is used by traders as a predictive indicator of market movement. A pivot point is calculated as an average of significant prices (high, low, close) from the performance of a market in the prior trading period. If the market in the following period trades above the pivot point it is usually evaluated as a bullish sentiment, whereas trading below the pivot point is seen as bearish.

It is customary to calculate additional levels of support and resistance, below and above the pivot point, respectively, by subtracting or adding price differentials calculated from previous trading ranges of the market.

A pivot point and the associated support and resistance levels are often turning points for the direction of price movement in a market. In an up-trending market, the pivot point and the resistance levels may represent a ceiling level in price above which the uptrend is no longer sustainable and a reversal may occur. In a declining market, a pivot point and the support levels may represent a low price level of stability or a resistance to further decline.

The pivot point itself represent a level of highest resistance or support, depending on the overall market condition. If the market is direction-less (undecided) prices will often fluctuate greatly around this level until a price breakout develops. Trading above or below the pivot point indicates the overall market sentiment. It is a leading indicator providing advanced signaling of potentially new market highs or lows within a given time frame

The support and resistance levels calculated from the pivot point and the previous market width may be used as exit points of trades, but are rarely used as entry signals. For example, if the market is up-trending and breaks through the pivot point, the first resistance level is often a good target to close a position, as the probability of resistance and reversal increases greatly.

It is customary to calculate additional levels of support and resistance, below and above the pivot point, respectively, by subtracting or adding price differentials calculated from previous trading ranges of the market.

A pivot point and the associated support and resistance levels are often turning points for the direction of price movement in a market. In an up-trending market, the pivot point and the resistance levels may represent a ceiling level in price above which the uptrend is no longer sustainable and a reversal may occur. In a declining market, a pivot point and the support levels may represent a low price level of stability or a resistance to further decline.

The pivot point itself represent a level of highest resistance or support, depending on the overall market condition. If the market is direction-less (undecided) prices will often fluctuate greatly around this level until a price breakout develops. Trading above or below the pivot point indicates the overall market sentiment. It is a leading indicator providing advanced signaling of potentially new market highs or lows within a given time frame

The support and resistance levels calculated from the pivot point and the previous market width may be used as exit points of trades, but are rarely used as entry signals. For example, if the market is up-trending and breaks through the pivot point, the first resistance level is often a good target to close a position, as the probability of resistance and reversal increases greatly.

## VÍDEO: Sharpening Your Edge Series: Pivot Points

Discover one of the best-kept secrets of bank traders. Pivot points and their medians have long been a favorite of the biggest institutional players, and since they are the ones who move the markets, once you know the likely places for their pending orders, you also know the most likely levels for reversals. But too many traders calibrate their pivots incorrectly since they lack an understanding of their meaning and how the markets work.

In this webinar fund manager and trading coach Andrei Pehar will take you inside the world of institutional trading and show you step-by-step how to set up and use pivot points on the popular MetaTrader platform. Attendees will receive links to a free copy of MetaTrader so you can practice what you learned (on commodities and stocks, not just forex), free pivot indicator downloads, and other free webinars to help further your learning.

In this webinar fund manager and trading coach Andrei Pehar will take you inside the world of institutional trading and show you step-by-step how to set up and use pivot points on the popular MetaTrader platform. Attendees will receive links to a free copy of MetaTrader so you can practice what you learned (on commodities and stocks, not just forex), free pivot indicator downloads, and other free webinars to help further your learning.

## Artigos no site INVESTOPEDIA

## Mapping Your Time Frame

**Forex Trading Pivot Points**

Pivot points is a set of indicators developed by floor traders in the commodities markets to determine potential turning points, also known as "pivots". Forex pivot points are calculated to determine levels in which the sentiment of the Forex market trend could change from "

**bullish**" to "

**bearish**." Currency traders use these points

*.*

**as markers of support and resistance**Forex pivot points are calculated as the average of the high, low and close from the previous trading session:

Forex Pivot Point = (High + Low + Close) / 3

Day traders use the calculated pivot points to determine levels of entry, stops and profit taking, by trying to determine where the majority of other Forex traders may be doing the same.

A

**pivot point**is a price level of significance in technical analysis of a financial market that is used by traders as a predictive indicator of market movement. It is calculated as an average of significant prices (high, low and close) from the performance of a market in the prior trading period. If the market in the following period trades

*sentiment, whereas trading*

**above the central pivot it is usually evaluated as a bullish****.**

*below the central pivot is seen as bearish*Pivot point is used to calculate additional levels of support and resistance, below and above central pivot, respectively, by either subtracting or adding price differentials calculated from previous trading ranges of the market.

A pivot point and the associated support and resistance levels are often turning points for the direction of price movement in a market.

- In an up-trending Forex market, the pivot point and the resistance levels may represent a ceiling level for the price. if price goes above this level the uptrend is no longer sustainable and a trend reversal may occur.
- In a declining market, a pivot point and the support levels may represent a low for price level or a resistance to further decline.

The central pivot point can then be used to calculate the support and resistance levels as follows:

Pivot points consist of a central pivot level surrounded by three support levels below it and three resistance levels above it. Pivot points were originally used by floor traders on equity and futures exchanges because they provided a quick way for those traders to get a general idea of how the market was moving during the course of the day using only a few simple calculations. However, over time they have also proved exceptionally useful in other markets as well.

One of the reasons they are now so popular is because they are considered a "leading" (or predictive) indicator rather than a lagging indicator. All that is required to calculate the pivot points for the upcoming (current) trading day is the previous day high, low, and close prices. The 24-hour cycle pivot points in this indicator are calculated according to the following formulas:

The central pivot can then be used to calculate the support and resistance levels as follows:

Resistance 3

Resistance 2

Resistance 1

**Pivot Point**

Support 1

Support 2

Support 3

**Pivot Points as a Forex Trading tool**

The pivot point itself represents a level of highest resistance or support, depending on the overall market condition. If the market is direction-less (

*ranging Forex market*) prices will often fluctuate greatly around this level until a price breakout develops. Trading above or below the central pivot indicates the overall market sentiment as bullish or bearish respectively. Pivot point is a leading Forex indicator that provides signals of potentially new market highs or lows within a given chart time frame.

The support and resistance levels calculated from the central pivot and the previous market width may be used as exit points of the open Forex trades, but are rarely used as entry signals. For example, if the market

**is up-trending and breaks through the pivot point**, the first or second resistance level is often a good target to close a position, as the probability of resistance and reversal increases greatly, with every resistance level.

In pivot point analysis three levels are commonly recognized above and below the central point. These are calculated from the range of price movement in the previous trading period and then added to the central pivot for resistances and subtracted from it for support levels.

**Interpretation**

Pivot levels can be used in many different ways. Here are a few of the most common methods for utilizing them:

**Trend Direction:**Combined with other Forex analysis techniques such as overbought/oversold oscillators, volatility measurements, etc., the central pivot may be useful in determining the general trending direction of the Forex market. Trades are only taken in the direction of the Forex trend. Buy trades occur only when the price is above the central point and sell trades occur only when the price is below the central pivot.

**Price Breakouts:**When trading price breakouts, a bullish buy signal occurs when the price breaks up through the central pivot or one of the resistance levels (typically Resistance 1). A short sell signal occurs when price breaks down through the central point or one of the support levels (typically Support 1).

**Trend Reversals:**When trading trend reversals, a buy signal occurs when the price moves towards a support level, gets very close to it, touches it, or moves only slightly through it, and then ...

**How to Use Pivots Points for Forex Day Trading**

Pivot Points are used by Forex traders to find support and resistance levels based on the previous day's price action. There are various ways to calculate pivot points, including averaging the open, high, low, and close of the previous day's chart price.

Forex Traders use a combination of pivot points with moving averages to find trading opportunities in the currency markets.

Pivot points are very useful tools that use the previous bars' highs, lows and closings to project support and resistance levels for future bars.

Longer term pivot points provide an idea of where key support and resistance levels should be. Place the pivot points on your forex charts and price will bounce off one of these levels. These levels are used by traders trading market tops, market bottoms or trend reversals. The Pivot points are accurate since they provide the high and low of price for a particular day.

- Daily pivots are calculated from previous day's high, low, close which ends at 5.00pm EST(2100 GMT)

**How to Interpret and Use Pivot Points in Forex Trading**

The pivot point itself is the primary

**support/resistance level**, This means that the largest price movement is expected to occur at this price.

The other support and resistance levels are also important in calculating levels that can generate significant price movements.

Pivot points can be used in two ways. The first way is for determining overall Forex market trend: if the pivot point price is broken in an upward movement, then the market trend is bullish, and vice versa. However, pivot points are short-term trend indicators, useful for only one day until they need to be recalculated.

The second method is to use pivot price levels to enter and exit the markets. Pivot point is a useful tool that can be used to calculate levels that are likely to cause price movement.

These points should be used conjunction with other forms of technical analysis such as Moving averages, MACD and stochastic oscillator.

Pivot point levels can be used in many different ways. Here are a few of the most common methods for utilizing them.

*Combined with other technical analysis techniques such as overbought/oversold oscillators, volatility measurements, the central pivot point may be useful in determining the general trending direction of the Forex market. Trades are only taken in the direction of the Forex trend. Buy trades occur only when the price is above the central point and sell trades occur only when the price is below the central pivot.*

**Trend Direction Determined by Pivot Point:***When trading price breakouts, a*

**Price Breakouts:****bullish signal**occurs when the price breaks up through the central pivot or one of the resistance levels (typically Resistance 1). A

**bearish signal**occurs when price breaks down through the central pivot or one of the support levels (typically Support 1).

**When trading price reversals;**

*Forex Trend Reversals:**A buy signal occurs when the price moves towards a support level,*gets very close to it, touches it, or moves only slightly through it, and then reverses and moves back in the opposite direction.*A sell signal occurs when the price moves towards a resistance level*, gets very close to it, touches it, or moves only slightly through it, and then reverses and moves back in the opposite direction.

*The central pivot and its support and resistance levels may be potentially helpful in determining suitable stop loss and/or limit profit placements. For example, if trading a long breakout above the Resistance 1 level it may be reasonable to position a stop loss.*

**Stop loss and/or Limit Profit Values Determined by Support/Resistance Levels:****Fibonacci Pivot Point**

R3 = PP + ((High - Low) x 1.000)

R2 = PP + ((High - Low) x .618)

R1 = PP + ((High - Low) x .382)

PP = (H + L + C) / 3

S1 = PP - ((High - Low) x .382)

S2 = PP - ((High - Low) x .618)

S3 = PP - ((High - Low) x 1.000)

*C - Closing Price, H - High, L - Low*

Fibonacci pivot point levels are determined by first calculating the pivot point like you would the standard method.

Next, multiply the previous day's range with its corresponding Fibonacci level. Most traders use the 38.2%, 61.8% and 100% retracements in their calculations.

Finally, add or subtract the figures you get to the pivot point and voila, you've got your Fibonacci pivot point levels!

Look at the chart below to see how the levels calculated through the Fibonacci method (solid lines) differ from those calculated through the standard method (dotted lines).

The logic behind this is that many traders like using the Fibonacci ratios. People use it for retracement levels, moving averages, etc.

Why not use it for pivot points as well?

Remember that both Fibonacci and pivot points levels are used to find support and resistance. With so many traders looking at these levels, they can actually become self-fulfilling.

The truth is, just like all the variations of all the other indicators that you've learned so far, there is no single best method. It really all depends on how you combine your knowledge of pivot points with all the other tools in your trading toolbox.

Just know that most charting software that do automatic calculations normally use the standard method in calculating for the pivot point levels.

But now that you know how to calculate for these levels on your own, you can give them all a swing and see which one works best for you. Pivot away!

Why not use it for pivot points as well?

Remember that both Fibonacci and pivot points levels are used to find support and resistance. With so many traders looking at these levels, they can actually become self-fulfilling.

**Which method is best?**The truth is, just like all the variations of all the other indicators that you've learned so far, there is no single best method. It really all depends on how you combine your knowledge of pivot points with all the other tools in your trading toolbox.

Just know that most charting software that do automatic calculations normally use the standard method in calculating for the pivot point levels.

But now that you know how to calculate for these levels on your own, you can give them all a swing and see which one works best for you. Pivot away!

Pivot Point Trading- 7 Guidelines For Success

What do we mean by pivot point trading? It simply means that Forex traders take into account pivot points calculated from the previous day's trading range and use them as reference points to identify support and resistance levels.

Taking the high, low, close and open values of the previous day's price action, strategic levels can be identified which may or may not have an influence on price action. Pivot point trading puts emphasis on these levels, and uses them to guide entry and exit points for trades.

However, as with any technical indicator, there are limitations and pivot point trading, to be high probability, needs to stay within certain parameters. The following 7 guidelines can help pivot point trading be more profitable:

Pivot points should not be used as a standalone indicator. Do not enter or exit trades purely on the basis of pivot points. Use them in conjunction with other indicators such as candle patterns, Fibonacci levels, MACD, and moving averages to identify and confirm key levels of support and resistance which may provide trading opportunities.

While some traders living in various parts of the world may calculate their pivot points according to the time zone in which they live, a fairly safe standard for calculating the levels of pivot point trading is to use GMT (Greenwich Meantime).

Midnight GMT is a very quiet time in the market with very little volatility and provides a good opportunity to calculate more accurate pivot levels going from midnight GMT to midnight GMT the following day.

It is good to understand what is going on behind the scenes when it comes to pivot point trading. Rather than just staring at candles on a chart, understand what they actually represent.

Thousands of traders around the world, some working for large institutions and handling millions or even billions of dollars worth of currency, are taking positions according to previously established highs and lows in the market.

Pivot points draw attention to these key levels which will often be strongly defended by traders who have a lot at stake. This is the reason pivot point trading can be so successful, once a trader understands underlying reasons for price action.

It is good to calculate mid levels in addition to the S1, S2, R1, and R2 pivot levels. Sometimes there is a significant gap between these levels and calculating a mid point gives another point of reference. Price will often be seen respecting M1, M2, M3, or M4.

To calculate mid levels, simply subtract the level below from the level above and divide by 2. (see the resource box for a free pivot point calculator)

Pivot point trading can be a useful strategy for entering and exiting trades at the right time. A pivot point can provide a key level of support or resistance where price is likely to bounce for a 10-20 pip profit.

Or in the case of a trend, price may retrace to a pivot level before continuing its run. The retracement point at the pivot level would be a good place to put an entry order to be taken in when price comes back to retest at the pivot level.

The Euro - US dollar pair often puts in a daily average of between 75 and 100 pips. Watch for specific behavior around the time of the London market open. Price will often come back to test a level which is a pivot point and form a distinctive candle pattern such as tweezers, or a hanging man, and then reverse and go on its 75-100 pip run for the day.

If price comes back to the M1 level check your other indicators to see if they confirm this would be a good level to go long. Likewise, if price, just around London open, tests the M4 level, check your other indicators to see if this would be a good place to go short. You may be able to get a slice of the 75-100 pip run for the day.

Pivot point trading helps mentally in establishing the buy zone and the sell zone. Traditionally, anything above the Central Pivot Point is a Sell area, and everything below the Central Pivot Point is a Buy area.

If you go contrary to that, make sure you double check your analysis and have very good reasons for doing otherwise.

Pivot point trading is just one of an arsenal of weapons available to Forex market participants. However, it must be stated that many successful traders use just a handful of tools that become their favorites. After all, too many indicators can lead to decision paralysis.

For many traders, pivot points are a key element in their overall trading strategy. Use the 7 guidelines above to use them safely and responsibly.

*By Michael A Jones | Submitted On May 08, 2007*What do we mean by pivot point trading? It simply means that Forex traders take into account pivot points calculated from the previous day's trading range and use them as reference points to identify support and resistance levels.

Taking the high, low, close and open values of the previous day's price action, strategic levels can be identified which may or may not have an influence on price action. Pivot point trading puts emphasis on these levels, and uses them to guide entry and exit points for trades.

However, as with any technical indicator, there are limitations and pivot point trading, to be high probability, needs to stay within certain parameters. The following 7 guidelines can help pivot point trading be more profitable:

**No. 1**Pivot points should not be used as a standalone indicator. Do not enter or exit trades purely on the basis of pivot points. Use them in conjunction with other indicators such as candle patterns, Fibonacci levels, MACD, and moving averages to identify and confirm key levels of support and resistance which may provide trading opportunities.

**No. 2**While some traders living in various parts of the world may calculate their pivot points according to the time zone in which they live, a fairly safe standard for calculating the levels of pivot point trading is to use GMT (Greenwich Meantime).

Midnight GMT is a very quiet time in the market with very little volatility and provides a good opportunity to calculate more accurate pivot levels going from midnight GMT to midnight GMT the following day.

**No. 3**It is good to understand what is going on behind the scenes when it comes to pivot point trading. Rather than just staring at candles on a chart, understand what they actually represent.

Thousands of traders around the world, some working for large institutions and handling millions or even billions of dollars worth of currency, are taking positions according to previously established highs and lows in the market.

Pivot points draw attention to these key levels which will often be strongly defended by traders who have a lot at stake. This is the reason pivot point trading can be so successful, once a trader understands underlying reasons for price action.

**No. 4**It is good to calculate mid levels in addition to the S1, S2, R1, and R2 pivot levels. Sometimes there is a significant gap between these levels and calculating a mid point gives another point of reference. Price will often be seen respecting M1, M2, M3, or M4.

To calculate mid levels, simply subtract the level below from the level above and divide by 2. (see the resource box for a free pivot point calculator)

**No. 5**Pivot point trading can be a useful strategy for entering and exiting trades at the right time. A pivot point can provide a key level of support or resistance where price is likely to bounce for a 10-20 pip profit.

Or in the case of a trend, price may retrace to a pivot level before continuing its run. The retracement point at the pivot level would be a good place to put an entry order to be taken in when price comes back to retest at the pivot level.

**No. 6**The Euro - US dollar pair often puts in a daily average of between 75 and 100 pips. Watch for specific behavior around the time of the London market open. Price will often come back to test a level which is a pivot point and form a distinctive candle pattern such as tweezers, or a hanging man, and then reverse and go on its 75-100 pip run for the day.

If price comes back to the M1 level check your other indicators to see if they confirm this would be a good level to go long. Likewise, if price, just around London open, tests the M4 level, check your other indicators to see if this would be a good place to go short. You may be able to get a slice of the 75-100 pip run for the day.

**No. 7**Pivot point trading helps mentally in establishing the buy zone and the sell zone. Traditionally, anything above the Central Pivot Point is a Sell area, and everything below the Central Pivot Point is a Buy area.

If you go contrary to that, make sure you double check your analysis and have very good reasons for doing otherwise.

Pivot point trading is just one of an arsenal of weapons available to Forex market participants. However, it must be stated that many successful traders use just a handful of tools that become their favorites. After all, too many indicators can lead to decision paralysis.

For many traders, pivot points are a key element in their overall trading strategy. Use the 7 guidelines above to use them safely and responsibly.